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1983年中国严打时期的高清照片

1983年中国多地发生恶性犯罪事件,其中,当年6月16日,内蒙古8名十几岁的青年酒后滋事,杀死27人,强奸多名女性。这一年的7月19日,邓小平将彭真和公安部部长刘复之一起召到他的住所。1983年8月, 中共中央做出了“关于严厉打击刑事犯罪活动的决定”,强调了依法“从重从快”惩处严重刑事犯罪分子的方针。



1.1978年以后的几年里,社会治安成为一个突出的问题。1983年6月16日发生了一起新中国罕见的特大凶杀案,8名犯罪分子连续作案10多个小时,他们杀死的27名无辜群众上至75岁下至两岁,其中男性19人,女性8人。多名女青年被强奸、轮奸。这一团伙还犯有抢劫罪、爆炸罪。7月17日,公安部长刘复之在北戴河向邓小平汇报了严重的治安状况,邓小平当即指出:对于当前各种严重的刑事犯罪要严厉打击,要从重从快。于是,1983年8月25日,中共中央发出《关于严厉打击刑事犯罪的决定》,提出从现在起,在三年内组织三次战役。从1983年8月上旬开始到1984年7月,各地公安机关迅速开展严厉打击刑事犯罪活动的第一战役。



2.1983年,就在严打的同一年,一位名叫Leroy W. Demery的美国摄影师与朋友们来到了中国,他用镜头记录了他的行程,几乎遍布了中国的大江南北。图为8月18日,郑州街头的孩子,那时候的家长们也很担心“人贩子”的存在。

3.改革开放初期,国门打开,饱受“文革”动乱之苦的社会又面临着西方思想和生活方式的冲击。



大量回城的知青成了待业青年,游手好闲,又处于躁动的年龄,社会治安一年比一年差。在“文革”打砸抢烧的无政府主义遗毒的影响下,影响恶劣的重大刑事案件高发。中央终于下决心进行“严打”。上图为8月29日,兰州友谊饭店附近,几辆正在严打运送犯人的汽车。



4.在1983年8月至该年年底的第一次战役的第一仗中,相关部门摧毁犯罪团伙7万多个,缴获枪支18000多支,子弹42万多发。这场严打称得上是一场声势浩大的群众性运动,由民间提供的检举线索就达150万件,被群众扭送到公安机关的犯罪分子有47000多人。

在这种威力下,10多名犯罪分子到公安机关投案自首。犯罪分子的嚣张气焰在几个月的时间里熄灭下去。下图为8月29日,正在严打期间的兰州。



5.上世纪70年代末80年代初,杀人、抢劫、强奸等恶性事件频发。震动中央的恶性刑事案件被称为“控江路事件”发生时,距《刑法》在全国人大上通过仅两个月。严打后,局面得到有效控制。图为8月29日,正在严打期间的兰州天水路段。



6.“严打”进展并非一帆风顺。1979年颁布的《刑法》对严重刑事犯罪量刑偏低,公安队伍装备落后,民警的待遇偏低。坏人神气,好人受气,公安怨气,这“三气”是对当时治安状况的生动描述。

当时的犯罪分子还显现低龄化的趋势,据一些省市公安机关统计,25岁以下的青少年占作案成员总数的70%。一时间,社会上人心惶惶,许多传闻闹得沸沸扬扬。图为8月29日,正在严打期间的兰州天水路段。



7.邓小平开始重视治安问题,而促使他下决心进行严打的,是几个月后,在内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔盟喜桂图旗(今牙克石市),发生的震动全国的“六一六”案件。在严打的声威下,上海市委第二书记胡立教之养子胡晓阳强奸案被揭发出来,两年后,当时的总书记胡耀邦批示:“罪大恶极,不杀不足以平民愤。”上海也对几位高干子弟判了死刑。“严打”势如破竹。



8.1983年“严打”真是铁面无私,连朱德的孙子朱国华也因流氓罪被枪毙,他在天津市和平区睦南道100号奸污女性30人,当时人称那里为淫窟。

图为9月19日,严打期间的天津。



9.“严打”期间的死刑大案要案比比皆是,死刑的场面深深刻入百姓记忆中。经过审讯被公审宣判死刑的犯人,须经过游街示众后押赴刑场行刑。前面由鸣着警笛的警车开道,后面紧跟着一辆辆大卡车,每辆卡车上站着一名将要被执行死刑的犯人。犯人被五花大绑,由于将临的死亡和游街的耻辱而面如土色。他们胸前挂着木牌,上面写有名字、性别、年龄及罪行等,在他们的名字上面还画着黑色的“×”。行刑车沿途播放广播,宣传“严打”斗争,控诉犯人罪行。路过的大街小巷,引来无数百姓围观。公安人员在旁边维持秩序,疏导交通。图为9月19日,严打期间的天津。



10.看当下,转眼间十几年过去了。今年8月28日刚刚闭幕的全国人大常委会第十六次会议上,首次审议了《刑法修正案(八)草案》。这一修正案被视为1997年中国刑法修订以来对刑法的“大修”,拟取消13个非暴力经济犯罪的死刑。如果修正案最终得以通过,意味着中国的死刑罪名将从现行规定的68个骤减为55个。国家的法律更加人性化,有利于社会顺畅发展、百姓生活和谐。

图为10月12日,上海的重庆南路和建国东路。



11.严打数年间,在严厉打击各种犯罪的同时,也带有一些扩大化的成分,那种类似运动式的从严从重的判决浪潮仿佛是“文革”遗风。这种判决此后再未出现。有力举措为以后社会安定打下了基础。”图为9月11日西安大路上的春城街上的菜市场。



12.《刑法》颁布、社会肃清之后,整个国家向着“依法治国”与“改革开放”的正确方向前进,胜利的曙光正在眼前。图为8月8日,昆明街头看新家电的人群。

怀才就像怀孕,时间长了才能看出来。

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