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万历朝鲜战争:有种风骨,叫明朝军人;有种无耻,叫朝鲜

作者:我方团队张嵚

大明王朝三个世纪,被诟病的槽点极多,但一个伟大精神,几百年里光耀青史:不屈的风骨。

北元,鞑靼,瓦剌,倭寇,八旗。江山残破,内外交困,皇帝被虏,千里海警,南倭北虏。但无论怎样凶残的对手,大明却从未退缩,多么险恶的局面,大明也不曾屈服。没有和亲妥协,没有岁币割地,没有议和偏安,就算残山剩水,大厦倾覆,依旧直面金戈,浴血死战。



有人笑不识时务,有人叹迂腐昏聩。但回望明太祖高呼“中国有必伸之仇”的飒爽英姿,明成祖“远迈汉唐”的威武风采。哪怕明思宗迈上煤山的的孤独悲怆,明昭宗蓖子坡前的怅然从容。无论繁华灾难,无分精明昏聩,始终同一个姿势挺立。钢铁的脊梁,托起过辉煌煎熬过苦难,从生到死,膝盖不曾打弯!

五千年风雷变换,多少喧嚣一时的文明,烟花般湮灭不见。唯有华夏,生生不息。是这钢铁的脊梁,哪怕化作铁水,依然融入血液,支撑住炎黄子孙坚强的传承!

铸起大明钢铁脊梁的,正有一代代热血风骨的大明军人们,今天要说的,正是他们。

一:暖男战神

皇帝家的外甥,看上去纨绔子弟多,但明太祖朱元璋的外甥李文忠,却是励志少年。



元末饥荒,十二岁的李文忠与父亲踏上逃荒路,历经兵匪天灾,父亲哭求他扔下自己,他却咬牙坚持,硬是带着重病的父亲投奔到了舅父朱元璋。见面一刻,朱元璋抱着骨瘦如柴的他放声嚎啕,从此悉心培养,成长为大明战将。

他带兵风格独树,口头禅“不敢贪生而死于三军之后”,却擅长巧劲。比如北出大都,身为石敬瑭割幽云后又一代挺进漠北的汉家军人,电光火石间将北元上都应昌连同数万元军一锅端,威名震撼草原。

表弟朱棣请教,你为什么打仗这么神。他答:如果你逃过荒,就知道战场上的绝望,根本就算不得什么。苦难往事,血火悲怆,他从不忘。

因为不忘,他的士兵擅拿老乡一口锅就处死。征战路上要收留抚养孤儿。大明开国后,每到部将忌日时,他必然布衣蔬食纪念,平日的赏赐多分给部下。大家在夸功,他只念战友。



但当朱元璋清算功臣风暴大起,他却挺身硬顶,沐浴更衣交代后事,朝堂上愤怒向舅父高呼:如此残暴清洗,将来谁为大明保卫边疆!逃过杀戮的他,闭门谢客三年,直到病入膏肓,舅父朱元璋登门探望,一番长谈终于解开心结。洪武十七年三月,四十五岁的李文忠英年早逝。

噩耗传来,悲痛万分的朱元璋,问外甥临终前的情况,得到的回答是:他回光返照时,还曾习武练字。一旦国家有难,他依然会为大明保卫边疆!

二:“二世祖”的荣耀

土木堡国难前,郭登是个惹人羡的“二世祖”:武定侯郭英孙儿,平日悠闲吟诗练武,深受明英宗信赖,明英宗北征时,特意安排他留守大同做参将,好比挂职锻炼,前途十分远大。

但土木国难骤降,明英宗被俘,大同精锐尽失,战马就剩百匹,孤城危如累卵。“二世祖”郭登一下身处风口浪尖:大同主将刘安吓得躲猫猫,同僚在郭登面前嚎哭,还有人说郭登风凉话:还是你好,轻松跑关系就能调走。谁知郭登不哭不躲,埋头扎进兵营慰问伤兵,扛着家伙上了城墙:谁说我要跑?我与大同共存亡!



这个“二世祖”,就这样担起天大干系——保住大同。拿出自己的积蓄赏赐部队,累死累活训练士卒,硬下心肠把被瓦剌挟持叩关的明英宗挡在城外,只为接下来残酷的战争。瓦剌兵临北京,郭登坐镇的大同巍然耸立,担心后路被断的瓦剌,终于在京城碰壁后仓皇撤离!

但郭登的高光时刻,这才开始:土木国难次年正月,郭登亲率八百骑兵,在沙窝横挑数千瓦剌精骑,一战将其打溃。三个月后,又在大同城外列阵,堂堂正正与瓦剌开练,再次将其暴揍!谁说土木堡国难后,瓦剌野战无敌了?大同!有郭登!挺身而出后的苦心经营:只剩一百匹马的大同,重新拥有了一支两万精锐骑兵,更在后世有个荣耀百年的称号:宣达精骑!

三:踏破贺兰山缺

王越,生在河南贫寒农家,本只想科考光耀门楣,但读史读到靖康之乱,念词念过《满江红》,终于少年豪情迸发,立下终生不悔志向:建功沙场。从此除了读书更勤练武,练到能开两石强弓,后来科场登第,多年来摸爬滚打,终于官居三边总制,担当抗击鞑靼的重任。

这以后的大明北疆,二十年间就是王越的战场,他会带兵,一群粗鲁的军将,都叫他治的服服帖帖,他临阵不乱,曾经面对鞑靼骑兵冲击,冷静射杀敌酋。他的指挥艺术出神入化,成化年间两次出塞,打得鞑靼可汗仓皇逃窜,明朝洪武年间后仅有三位文官以战功封爵者,他是其中之一。



但战场荣耀,抵不过明枪暗箭。为求带兵大权,他曾拉下面皮,走了宦官汪直的门路,当众给汪太监行跪拜礼,因此受够嘲笑。为求全胜,他不顾朝中言官聒噪,坚持隐忍不发,自然遭够弹劾谩骂。五十七岁那年,受汪直倒台株连,他遭到残酷清算,罢官后押到安陆软禁。

那段屈辱日子里,他除了不停喊冤,就是默默摆象棋残局磨练心智,最大爱的,就是宋末大英雄文天祥幽禁元大都时独创的棋局。十一年后云开月明:明孝宗为他恢复名誉,返任三边总制。然后,他打出了人生中最后辉煌一战:三路出击贺兰山,将鞑靼一代雄主达延可汗打得狼狈而逃,是为明朝“弘治中兴”年间知名胜仗——贺兰山大捷。



再度辉煌的他,也以七十三岁高龄,病故于张掖任上。虽说关于他的流言非议,当时一直不停,但他已无憾:忍辱负重一生,最后踏破贺兰山缺一战!偶像岳飞词中的理想,做到了!

四:抗倭援朝点滴事

中国古代军队最后一次扬威异国的荣耀,正是万历朝鲜战争!

这场战争中,明军的战场表现怎样?正如朝鲜官员那句著名评价:战胜之速,委前史所未有也!

除了朝鲜史料各种赞的“战胜之速”,而令对手日本印象最为深刻的,除了明军犀利的装备,更有明军士兵铁血的战斗意志!

著名的南原之战,五万日军围困只有三千明军苦守的南原城,在朝鲜友军无耻跑路的局面下,明将杨元慨然撕毁了日军的劝降书,然后全军死战,三千明军除杨元等十多人突围外,全数壮烈殉国!



更叫日本“武士道”灰头土脸的,还有稷山大战!四千明朝边军就地设防,生扛装备精良的日本第三军团,打得两万日军硬不能前进一步。由于过程太过惨烈,此战日军主将黑田长政,还给打出了毛病,以后再不和明朝野战,日本败局已定后立刻撒腿逃跑。

而且也因为打的太惨,好些日本“专家”,一直脑洞大开写“抗明神剧”,非说日本这一战打的是明朝十万大军。夸张水平,可写玄幻小说。

陆军如此,明朝海军也不差,这支最后在露梁海上团灭日本舰队的虎师,初入朝时曾在顺天郡一战中遇挫,有船只因遇潮搁浅,陷入到日军重围。但日本史料记录下,当日军得意洋洋准备抓俘虏时,却看到了惊人一幕:有的明朝伤兵宁死不做俘虏,愤然投到烈火中自尽。能打的动的,全都浴血突围到岸上,身边倒下大批日军尸首……

但如果留心看几眼韩剧,这支令日本人惊悚的明军,在韩国影视剧中,却常见另一恶习:入朝后就打家劫舍,还没打日本人,就在朝鲜干了一票坏事!

真实的情况,又是怎样呢?

一个令人尴尬的真相,却是长期被无视:万历朝鲜战争里,那败坏到瞠目结舌的,朝鲜方负责的后勤保障!



明军入朝作战,粮草物资弹药,基本由朝鲜供应,不但明军征用粮草要付钱,朝鲜方面更腐败精神大爆发,本该供给明军的粮草,层层官员克扣磨洋工。仅看明军主将宋应昌李如松等人的奏折,前线动辄一两天断粮是常事,打到汉城时,连马都断粮!

断粮的景象,是触目惊心的,朝鲜自己的《惩毖录》里都承认:明军打到临津江时,连战马都饿死了一万五千匹。急红眼的明朝,从国内调来十三万石粮食,运到朝鲜就被朝鲜一拖二赖,硬是不往前线运,白白烂在了义州。



朝鲜官员李元翼更亲眼看到,平壤和顺安安置的明军伤兵,不单缺医少药,好些人甚至两三天没吃饭,各个奄奄一息。朝鲜官员徐渻更奏报,好些驻地的明军,由于缺衣少食,竟然还要自己跑到深山里挖野草,场景十分凄惨!抗倭援朝战争为什么拖了七年?这才是最重要原因!

那明军打家劫舍了?这个说法,应该来自另一个历史:当看到平壤明军伤员的悲惨状况后,征东提督李如松大怒,命令部下拿着他的旗牌来到周边城镇,勒令当地朝鲜官员,全力保障明军伤病员的伙食供应。战场形势下,这是必须的,然后这位把朝鲜救出水火的铁血将军,今天还被韩剧骂。

不但后来被韩剧骂,当时事后,朝鲜找明朝申诉,明朝朝中那些听风就是雨的言官们,更是借此对抗倭援朝将士们大肆攻击,好多抹黑明军将士且流传到今天的言论,就是由此而来。



而一个真相,也就因此被轻视:大明,曾经有这样一支在谩骂声中,打出最后绝唱荣耀的,伟大的军队!

怀才就像怀孕,时间长了才能看出来。

                                 加德法语B2学生被调查

最近加德的法语B2认证班的新闻沸沸扬扬,各种消息满天乱飞。我的法语B2也被取消了,但是我心服口服,学校自己选的没选好,学的水平就是不够,无任何怨言,我只想公开一些事情,免得更多同学被欺骗。我是在嘉德学的法语,不知道跟加德是不是同一所学校。我报的0-B2一共交了4299。然后到A2级别后上的A2-B2认证班,考试是在学校考的,没去传说中的教委考试。考试题都提前告诉我们了。照着背就过了。然后我拿这个B2证书递交的CSQ申请。就在上周五我接到移民局电话,电话面试。当时说了两句话我就放弃了,我知道自己这下肯定凶多吉少。果然最后打电话的考官告诉我,我的法语不到B2水平,法语B2成绩取消。我问为什么,她回答说:现在怀疑某些学校和教委私自把B2要求由魁省要求的7级降为5级。我就是这一批被怀疑的学生。我这才恍然大悟,我一直觉得是自己没好好学习所以级别没达到,原来根本就是标准出了问题。本来7级才能拿B2证书,学校搞猫腻,为了省钱省时间,我们水平刚学到5级就让拿B2证书!而5级只有B1水平根本达不到魁省PEQ移民的要求。这个确实是被学校坑了。而且确实涉嫌造假。虽然我属于是在不知情的情况下被造假的,但是水平不够是不可争议的事实。我跟学校沟通了,学校说全额退款。没有威胁恐吓我。可能是跟我同样情况的同学太多了吧,我还没说完话,对方直接就说全额退款,不要闹。闹对大家都没好处。于是我也选择了沉默。现在我突然发现太多人被蒙蔽了,而且还一直有新同学被蒙蔽真相。所以我在这里说出我的经历,也是供大家自己考虑。

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